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Was it, as the Bible might imply, 5700-plus years, or was it the 15 billions of years that's accepted by the scientific community?
The first thing we have to understand is the origin of the Biblical calendar.
At MIT, in the Hayden library, we had about 50,000 books that deal with the development of the universe: cosmology, chemistry, thermodynamics, paleontology, archaeology, the high-energy physics of creation.
That means the text of the Bible itself (3300 years ago), the translation of the Torah into Aramaic by Onkelos (100 CE), the Talmud (redacted about the year 500 CE), and the three major Torah commentators.
There are many, many commentators, but at the top of the mountain there are three, accepted by all: Rashi (11th century France), who brings the straight understanding of the text, Maimonides (12th century Egypt), who handles the philosophical concepts, and then Nachmanides (13th century Spain), the earliest of the Kabbalists.
(I refuse to use modern Biblical commentary because it already knows modern science, and is always influenced by that knowledge.
The trend becomes to bend the Bible to match the science.) So the only data I use as far as Biblical commentary goes is ancient commentary.
After 3000 years of arguing, science has come to agree with the Torah.
Starting from Rosh Hashanah How long ago did the "beginning" occur?One of the most obvious perceived contradictions between Torah and science is the age of the universe.Is it billions of years old, like scientific data, or is it thousands of years, like Biblical data?We have a clock that begins with Adam, and the six days are separate from this clock. That might seem like a modern rationalization, if it were not for the fact that Talmudic commentaries 1500 years ago, brings this information.In the Midrash (Vayikra Rabba 29:1), an expansion of the Talmud, all the Sages agree that Rosh Hashanah commemorates the soul of Adam, and that the Six Days of Genesis are separate. Because time is described differently in those Six Days of Genesis.The Jewish year is figured by adding up the generations since Adam. On Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, upon blowing the shofar, the following sentence is said: "Hayom Harat Olam ― today is the birthday of the world." This verse might imply that Rosh Hashanah commemorates the creation of the universe. Rosh Hashanah commemorate the creation of the Neshama, the soul of human life.